Tuesday, July 7, 2015

Atomic Tuesday: The Magic Numbers of Nuclear Physics

Atomic Tuesday:  The Magic Numbers of Nuclear Physics.
by Rich Feldenberg

Similar to the way electrons reside in atomic orbitals around the atom, the protons and neutrons that make the atomic nucleus are also organized into orbitals or shells.  The Nuclear Shell Model addresses the structure and energy levels associated with these nuclear shells.  No two protons or neutrons (nucleons) can be found in the same shell if they contain the same quantum state (again very similar to the quantum rules followed by electrons going into atom orbitals- Pauli exclusion principle). 

Each energy shell can hold up to a certain "magic number" of protons or neutrons, but all nucleons within the shell must be of different quantum states.  If all the quantum states for that shell are already taken, then they will go to the next available shell.  The magic numbers are 2, 8, 20, 28, 50, 82, and 126 - indicating the number of nucleons possible in each of the shells.  If an atom happens to contain a magic number or protons or neutrons it is found to be very stable, and these also correspond to atoms that are the most prevalent in the environment.   An example would be element 10 (2 for the first shell plus 8 for the second shell).  Element 10 is neon which is a stable nucleus.


If an element has both a magic number of protons and a magic number of neutrons it is "doubly magic", and has a tightly bound nucleus.  An example would be Lead-208, which has 82 protons and 126 neutrons.  Heavy elements like lead (Pb) usually have more neutrons than protons since the electrostatic repulsion of the protons needs to be balanced out by more neutrons which provide the strong nuclear force to keep the nucleons bound together.


References:
1. The Nuclear Shell Model; University of Nebraska

2. The Nuclear Shell Model: University of California

3. The Nuclear Shell Model - Wikipedia




8 comments:

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  2. 3d bioprinting = Immortality = go to stars

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  3. ...interstellar travel constant acceleration (Sun-Deneb: 1000g)... Earth...the 2 ships that will go formation flying for mutual assisting if there are problems...indestructible structures made of Hexapentas material, awaiting in airport the arrival of passengers... Day 1: zero-speed... THE SHIPS TAKEOFF►... navigation computer places on screen the spacecraft in the center of sphere...spherical\tridimensional\spatial Heading: Deneb... Antimatter rocket engines...ON... Here we go...goooooo!...1g...10g...100g...constant acceleration cruise: 1000g (9.8 kms/sec²)... Inside the living areas (the same as going submerged in water: constant acceleration downwards...less...constant thrust, constant acceleration, from water upwards)...the gravitational transformers, perfectly synchronized with the acceleration, running: 1000g constant acceleration toward the floor ↓↓(motors)↓↓...less...999g constant acceleration toward the ceiling ↑↑(gravitational transformers)↑ = 1g constant acceleration toward the floor↓... 8.5 hours: light-speed = 1c...the fusion reactor as an artificial sun illuminating the immense Vital Support Gardens to lowering, from their comfortable apartments, cheerful passage to the pool...the electromagnetic shield anti-radiation...antigravity fields generator run forward, working: light objects away from the path of the ship...and trajectory ship away from the heavy objects...superluminal-speed > 1c... 42.5 hours: reaches hyperluminal-speed = 5c... Day 508: Half Journey...1000 light years...high hyperluminal-speed = 1435.39c... OFF engines...a few minutes of weightlessness during maneuver...the ship rotates 180º around its axis...motors ON again and... ◄STARTS TO BRAKE... Day 1017 (2.79 years): End Path party...2000 light years...zero-speed... The forever young passage of the 1st Immortal Generation (3D Bioprinting...Telomerase...modified Biological Timers...) disembarks at destination: an extra-stellar planet which came errant to orbit of Deneb giant.

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  4. (4)...interstellar travel (thousands G of constant acceleration)... What is a Force?... Gravity...two objects attract between them emitting gravitons, how two pirate-ships hooked by ropes with hooks from the other... Each emitted graviton perhaps would go invisibly united to its emitter object,such as if would go an elastic cord with infinite length and when arrives till the other object, by far that it is, "knows" toward where has that "pulling"...never are confused the gravitons emitted by different sources "pulling" toward do not is... The gravitons that come from Andromeda they "pull" toward Andromeda, and do not toward the Magellanic Clouds... That graviton comes climbing toward the steel object which falls from a tower...when arrives to the object, what finds?...sighted from its perspective finds which the object in reality does not exist...only "sees" a vacuum, here a nucleus of protons and neutrons...far over there some electrons in orbit...((the distance between Earth and Moon is enormously major than the diameter Earth + Moon; the distance between an atomic nucleus and its orbital electrons is enormously major than the diameters of all their subatomic particles added)... Where "hooking for pulling" from this object which does not exist?, asks itself... also asks itself from where comes, how went emitted because over there also only was vacuum and some subatomic particles here and there... Ah, I know..."will hook" in the magnetic force lines which go away for this huge vacuum joining the nuclei of protons (+) with their far electrons (-), in these force line made with Photons emitted from those nuclei and electrons...but, they are lines of electromagnetic force and I am a graviton... Ah, from there comes a graviton of here, from where comes?, perhaps from interior of some Proton where the gluons, what an adhesive!...indestructibly join quarks to form it...and goes to the place from where I come for make the same, "hooking for pulling". So that perhaps...Graviton hooks in Proton that seems strong... The Gravitational Force how solution...someday all spacecrafts always will go to thousands G of constant acceleration... The Universe is just there for us... What is a Force?...who emits it?...where it "hooks"?...

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  5. This comment has been removed by the author.

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  6. ...space-elevator (orbital station bike wheel-1g)... geostationary orbit, a huge "bike-wheel" is gyrating around its own axis for have 1g-centrifugal. Wheel held in place with 4 CABLES (each cable with a track for Train, for both trains crossing ↓↑) FORMING THE STRUCTURE OF A RHOMBUS♦ (minor diagonal of rhombus is the gyration-axis of the Station-Wheel)...rhombus´s below, the carbon nanotubes Track towards Earth...rhombus´s above, the Cable towards a higher counterweight... if...WHEEL´s RADIUS = 250 mts... Wheel gyration´s Axis length = rhombus´s minor diagonal = ½ Wheel´s radius = 125 mts (axis could be a resistant hollow tube with for example 20 mts in diameter with an adequate wall´s thickness, hollow which could serving how tank of anything, e.g. air, or tank of frozen water storage no totally full, for volume expansion from liquid to ice without tank, Axis, breaking, thawing using solar-heat)... Cable´s length of the rhombus´s side = Wheel diameter = 500 mts ((also how Wheel´s supporting, instead of a rhombus, can be a narrow Rectangular structure ▄▄▄▄▄▄ of rigid girder with dimension sides slightly majors than Wheel´s diameter and wide, e.g. wheel´s diameter 500 mts and wide 50 mts...rectangle´s sides: 510 mts length, 60 mts wide. Rectangle with a cable/track (length=Wheel´s diameter) in each vertex, forming a long isosceles triangle ───◄at both rectangle´s minor sides►───)). Wheel´s ZONE-1g: habitable length = 1571 mts*50 mts wide (separation at both sides between Cable and Circumference of the gyratory Wheel, approx.= 5 mts, adjusting this separation installing an Axis with major or minor length, as much as shorter Axis...stronger and, for easy train´s passing, an angle nearer to 180º value in both rhombus´s-vertex, minor diagonal, where are the Big Soundless-♫-Bearings of Axis´s-insertion...a few Electrical Motors fed with Solar-Energy maintain automatically the gyration-speed counteracting the slow braking by friction from the Bearings...besides of Bearings: main Maglev system also for the gyration and Axis´s supporting, leaving the Bearings only how secondary security system...with a slight roominess between each Bearing and its exterior subjection, into the roominess all around...little solid Pistons radial extensible and retractable... Axis´s subjection: extensible ON, with Bearings; extensible OFF, with Maglev. With a sufficient cables tension coming from the counterweight, if Axis resists: the rhombus structure is undeformable)*10 Floors with 25 mts in height each one, gyrating 360º each 31 seconds, angular-speed = 11.61º/sec, linear-speed (tangential) = 182 kms/h... Station-Wheel´s GYRATION: AXIS IN PERPENDICULAR (90º) ORIENTATION TO THE ORBITAL TRAJECTORY...and so, while Station-Wheel follows its geostationary orbit, the Wheel does Not change the spatial-orientation of its axis, and thus there are Not Precession forces actuating (and thus there is Not torsion´s force against Track)...

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  7. ...interstellar travel constant acceleration (Earth Day)... PLANETARY EMERGENCY: global warming due to pouring pollutants greenhouse effect into the air...the generalized burn fossil fuels it must stop immediately. Car´s Factories: is inadmissible design dirty new cars with internal combustion, have to make and buy Solar Energy clean electric cars. Stop F1, welcome EF. Eliminate the cattle and natural meat how food. Leave Carbon and Petroleum for nonflammable uses. There are huge quantities of Methane also in oceanic bottoms how solid methane-hydrates, waiting... Methane Big Greenhouse Effect... Over there is visible, Lakes on polar areas already are releasing from bottom to surface big methane bubbles... Permafrost is Melting...when all that methane passing to Atmosphere... We receive vague communiqués... What can we do for avoid the future catastrophe on Earth?. Have to cooling the Planet again urgently, and do not thinking more Wars. Humankind must surmount its technological adolescence and go beyond...to the stars.

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  8. ...interstellar travel constant acceleration (return to Moon)... "We do not can return to moon"...recent declarations of an astronaut. In reality is: We do not can return to Moon, because on Moon there are Extraterrestrials, or they did stay in times past and remain their city ruins. Apollo astronaut transmission from Moon (TV): "...they are here,on aside crater, watching us...". We do not can return to Moon because still the religious are who command in the shadow over the World and their "gods" only "are" on Earth. When the Extraterrestrials will coming to Earth: Goodbye religion and its Lies. For that reason "We do not can" return to Moon, because "God" is the same Universe, a mineral and insensitive Being who permits the suffering of the innocents in that "Third World" intentionally maintained because WITHOUT POOR AND IGNORANTS THERE IS NOT RELIGION. For that reason "We do not can" return to Moon, because there is no other Life in none "life-beyond", the unique Immortality it is coming from We self: Technological Immortality. For that reason "We do not can" return to Moon...yet.

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